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1852 Belfast / Ulster Street Directory

1805 - 1806 - 1807 - 1808 - 1819 - 1843 - 1852 - 1861 - 1868 - 1877 - 1880 - 1890 - 1894
1901 - 1907 - 1908 - 1909 - 1910 - 1912 - 1918 - 1924 - 1932 - 1939 - 1943 - 1951 - 1960
1913 Tel. directory    1824 Pigots (Belfast)  &  (Bangor)   1894 Waterford Directory
1898 Newry Directory      Bangor Spectator Directory 1970






III. BELFAST STREET DIRECTORY (streets)  (A to L)   (M to Z)
VIII. LOCAL INSTITUTIONS, etc. (not online)

Vol. I.




          In presenting to the public "The Belfast and Province of Ulster Directory," the Publisher has to return his sincere thanks for the ready support afforded him, and for the kind assistance of those to whom he looked for information. Every exertion has been used to secure completeness and accuracy, and it is hoped the Work will be found to be a perfect Directory for Belfast and the principal towns in the Province of Ulster.
          Still, the Publisher has to crave indulgence for such errors and imperfections as are commonly incident to a first issue. He offers the present volume rather as an instalment of what he aspires to undertake, than as am average specimen of the series which it commences.
          In the compilation of the Work every attention has been paid to the convenience of those for whose use the Directory is intended. In order to facilitate the progress of strangers and others through the Town, a Map of Belfast, which will be found to embrace all the recent improvements of the town, has, at considerable expense, been specially prepared for the Directory.
          It is the intention of the Publisher, replying on the patronage and support of the Inhabitants of Belfast, to issue the Directory periodically, with such alterations and improvements as may be necessary, until the Work shall become a standard book of reference for Belfast and the North of Ireland.

                   C  News-Letter Office,
                    Belfast, 27th May 1852.
          The Publisher requests that any Alterations or Corrections wished for by Subscribers or Purchasers, in future publications of the Directory, may be forwarded to the Office, 10 Bridge Street, Belfast


Alphabetical Directory
Belfast (historical sketch)
Borough of Belfast
          Anacreontic society
          Antrim militia staff
          Brown Street schools
          Bank of Ireland
          Belfast Academy
          Belfast Banking Company
          Belfast Savings Bank
          Belfast and Ballymena rail
          Belfast and Co. Down rail
          Chamber of Commerce
          Committees, Town Council
          Custom House
          Coaches, cars, etc.
          Coast Guard office
          Chemico-agricul. society
          Christ Church schools
          Charitable society
          Constabulary officers
          Consistorial Court
          County Court House
          Commercial Club
          Commercial Buildings
          Classical harmonist society
          Deaf and Dumb institution
          Donegall Street National school
          Destitute sick society
          District military staff
          Essayists' club
          Freemasons' club
          Fine Arts Association
          General Assembly's college
          General Hospital
          Government school of design
          Harbour Commissioners
          Harbour Officers
          Houses of public worship
          Inland Revenue office
          Jews' society auxiliary
          Ladies' clothing society
          Library and society for promoting knowledge
          Ladies' industrial school
          Literary society
          Local Marine Board
          Lagan navigation company
          Luggage porters
          Lunatic asylum
          Magdalen asylum
          Medical society
          Medical benevolent fund society
          Manor Court
          Masonic lodges of Belfast
          Master Mariners' association
          Markets and Fairs
          New jail
          Natural history society
          Northern Banking company
          Northern Sun. school association
          Officers of health
          Odd-fellows' societies
          Public weigh-house
          Provincial Bank
          Poor-law Union
          Public baths & wash houses
          Parochial Schools
          Petty Sessions
          Police Office
          Post Office
          Provincial Masonic g. Lodge (Grand?)
          Provident Building Societies
          Quarter sessions
          Queen's College
          Queen's College Literary and Scientific Institute
          Royal Academical Institution
          Royal Botanic Society
          Royal Flax Society
          Rifle Club
          Seaman's Friend Society
          Society for prevention of cruelty to animals
          St. George's Church Schools
          St. Malachy's Seminary
          St. Patrick's Orphan Society
          Social Inquiry Society
          Singing Classes
          Ship-Owners' Association
          Total Abstinence Association
          Trustees sick, etc., seamen
          Town Mission
          Union Club
          Ulster Female Penitentiary
          Ulster Banking Company
          Ulster Railway
          Union Dispensaries
          Water Commissioners
          Working Classes' Association
          Railway Time
          Mail and Stage Coaches
Country Residents
Professions and Trades
          Academies & Public Schools
          Aerated Water Makers
          Agricultural Implement Makers
          Alabaster Manufacturers
          Apothecaries & Surgeons
          Asphalte & Felt Manufacturers
          Assurance Offices
          Auctioneers & Brokers
          Baby Linen Warehouses
          Basket Makers
          Bell Hangers
          Block, pump & mast makers
          Bobbin Manufacturers
          Book Binders
          Book Sellers & Stationers
          Book Agents
          Boot & Shoe Shops
          Brass Founders & Gas Fitters
          Brick & Tile Makers
          Bricklayers (Masters)
          Brush Makers
          Builders & Carpenters
          Butter Merchants
          Button Blue Manufacturers
          Cabinet Makers
          Canvass Manufacturers
          Carpet & Damask Warerooms
          Carriers' Quarters
          Carvers, Gilders, etc.
          Cheese mongers
          Chemists, manufacturing
          Chimney Sweepers
          China & Glass Warehouses
          Civil Engineers
          Clock & Watch Makers
          Clothes Dealers
          Clothes Renovators
          Coach Factories
          Coach Offices
          Coal Merchants
          Commission merchants, etc.
          Consuls & Vice-Consuls
          Copper & Tinplate workers
          Cork Cutters
          Cotton Spinners

Cotton Yarn Merchants
          Cutlers, etc.
          Damask Manufacturers
          Dress Makers
          Druggists & Chemists
          Earthenware & Glass Dealers
          Electrical Manufacturer
          Emigration Agents
          Engravers & Lithographers
          Feather Merchants
          File Cutters
          Fish (dried) Merchants
          Flax & Tow Merchants
          Flax Spinners
          Flour Merchants
          Furniture Brokers
          Gingham Manufacturers
          Glass Manufacturers
          Glue Manufacturers
          Grain Merchants
          Grocers (retail)
          Grocers (wholesale)
          Gun & Pistol Manufacturers
          Hackle & Gill Makers
          Harbour Master
          Hardware Dealers
          Hardware Merchants
          Hatters, etc.
          Hide Merchants
          Horse Dealers
          Horse Shoers & farriers
          Hosiers & Glovers
          Hotels, etc.
          House, rent & land agents
          Insurance Agents
          Insurance Companies' Offices
          Iron & Brass Founders
          Iron & Tinplate Merchants
          Iron Works
          Iron Mongers
          Jewellers & Opticians
          Last and boot tree makers
          Leather & hide merchants
          Lime Burners
          Linen and cotton printers
          Linen & Damask Warehouses
          Linen Manufacturers, etc.
          Linen Ornament Makers
          Linen Thread Manufacturers
          Linen Yarn Merchants
          Livery Stable Keepers
          Lloyd's Agent & Surveyor
          Looking Glass Maker
          Machine Makers
          Marble & Stone Cutters
          Masters in Chancery
          Mattress Makers
          Matting Manufactory
          Mill Banding Manufactory
          Milliners & Dress Makers
          Music Sellers
          Muslin Gas Singers (??)
          Muslin Manufacturers
          Nail Manufacturers
          News Agents
          Nautical Instrument Makers
          Notaries Public
          Nursery & Seedsmen
          Nurse Tenders
          Oil Merchants
          Painters & Glaziers
          Paper Makers & Merchants
          Patent Saw Mills
          Pipe Makers
          Picture Frame Makers
          Physicians & Surgeons
          Piano-forte makers
          Plasterers (masters)
          Plumbers, etc.
          Posting Establishments
          Post Offices
          Provision Dealers
          Provision Merchants
          Railway Companies
          Reading Rooms & Libraries
          Rectifying Distillers
          Reed Makers
          Room Paper Warehouses
          Rope & Twine Makers
          Saddlers & Harness Makers
          Salt Merchants
          Saw Makers & Sharpers
          Servants' Registry Offices
          Ship Brokers
          Ship Builders
          Ship Chandlers
          Ship Owners
          Shirt Makers
          Shuttle Makers
          Silk Manufacturers
          Silk Mercers
          Sizing Factories
          Soap and Candle Makers
          Soda Ash Manufacturers
          Solicitors & Attorneys
          Spirit Dealers
          Starch Manufacturers
          Stay & Corset Makers
          Steam Packet Agents
          Stock & Share Brokers
          Straw Bonnet Makers
          Tanners & Curriers
          Taverns & Coffee Houses
          Tea Merchants, wholesale
          Timber Merchants
          Tobacco & Snuff Dealers
          Toy Shops
          Trimming Warehouses
          Umbrella Makers
          Universal Parcels Office
          Venetian Blind Makers
          Veterinary Surgeons
          Watch Glass Manufacturers
          Whip & Thong Makers
          Woollen Warehouses
          Printed Calico Warehouses
          Wholesale Wine Merchants
          Wire Cloth Manufacture
          Woollen Drapers
Street Directory
Village Directory
           Ardoyne, Ballysillan, etc.
           The Knock


Abbey Street, Peter's Hill
Abbotsford Place, York Street
Academy Street, Donegall Street
Academy Court, 33 Academy Street
Adelaide Place
Agnes' Place, Shankhill Road (Shankill)
Albert Place, Donegall Pass
Albert Square, Donegall Quay
Albert Street, Durham Street
Albert Street Place, Albert Street
Albion Lane, Donegall Pass
Albion Place, Botanic Road
Alexander Street, Frederick Street
Alexander Street South, Peter's Hill
Alfred Street, Upper Arthur Street
Allen's Court, Peter's Hill
Anderson's Court, Shankhill (Shankill)
Anderson's Court, Millfield
Alton Street, Old Lodge Road
Ann Street
Annette Street, Verner Street
Antrim Place, Antrim Road
Antrim Road
Apsley Place, Donegall Pass
Ardmoulin Place, Falls Road
Arnon Street, Trinity Street
Arthur Lane, Upper Arthur Street
Arthur Place, Arthur Street
Arthur Square, Corn Market
Arthur Street, Arthur Square
Arthur Street Upper, Arthur Street
Artillery Street, North Queen Street
Ashmore Street, Conway Street
Ashley Place, Ballymacarrett
Aughton Terrace, Donegall Pass
Back Lane, Prince's Street
Bairn's Court, Curtis Street
Ballynafeigh, Ormeau Road
Balmer's Court, Verner Street
Bank Lane, Castle Place
Barnes' Court, Peter's Hill
Barker's Court, Pilot Street
Barrack Street, Mill Street
Bath Place, Falls Road
Beattie's Entry, Mill Street
Bedford Street, Donegall Square South
Bell's Lane, Smithfield
Belvidere Place, Great Victoria Street
Berryhill Court, Little Donegall Street
Berry Street, Hercules Street
Birch Street, Little Donegall Street
Black's Place, Hercules Street
Blakely's Lane, Tomb Street
Bogan's Row, Falls Road
Bond Street, Cromac Street
Bond Street New, Eliza Street
Botanic Garden, Malone Road
Botanic Road, Great Victoria Street
Botanic View, Botanic Road
Bolton Street, Verner Street
Boundary Court, Boundary Street
Boundary Street, Falls Road
Boyd's Court
Boyd's Court, Nile Street
Boyd Street, Peter's Hill
Bradbury Place, Botanic Road
Bradford's Entry, Millfield
Bradford Square, Tomb Street
Bradford Street, Dock Street
Breadalbane Place, Great Victoria Street
Bridge End
Bridge End, Ballymacarrett
Bridge Street, High Street
Bridge Street Place, Bridge Street
Brougham Street, York Street
Brown's Entry, Barrack Street
Brown's Row, Academy Street
Brown's Square, Peter's Hill
Brown Street, Millfield
Brunswick Lane, Henry Square
Brunswick Street, Howard Street
Burn's Court, Mill Street
Byrne's Lane, Lower Lagan Street
Caddell's Entry, High Street
Cahoon's Court, Brown Square
Calendar Street, Castle Lane
California Street, Old Lodge Road
Cambridge Street, York Road
Camden Terrace, Botanic Road
Campbell's Buildings, Peter's Hill
Campbell's Buildings, Conway Street
Campbell's Buildings
Campbell's Court, Carrick Hill
Campbell's Place. Old Lodge Road
Campbell Street      ditto
Canning Street, York Road
Cargill Street, Townsend Street
Caroline Street, Great George's Street
Carrick Hill, North Street
Carr's Row, Old Malone Road
The Castle, Castle Buildings
Castle Buildings, Castle Place
Castle Buildings, Donegall Place
Castle Chambers, Castle Place
Castle Court,       ditto
Castle Lane, Donegall Place
Castle Market, Calendar Street
Castle Place. High Street
Castle Street, Castle Place
Catherine Street, Henrietta Street
Catherine Street North, Little May Street
Catherine Court, Catherine Street
Caxton Street, Robert Street
Chapel Lane, Mill Street
Chapel Lane, Ballymacarrett
Charlemont Street, Berry Street
Charles Street, Union Street
Charlotte Street, Donegall Pass
Charters' Buildings, Falls Road
Chichester Lane, Albert Square
Chichester Street, Donegall Square East
Chichester Street Lower
Church Lane, High Street
Church Lane Upper
Church Street, Donegall Street
Clarence Place, Alfred Street
Clarendon Place        ditto
Clarendon Dock
Clark's Lane, Great Patrick Street
Cliftonville, New Lodge Road
Coates' Street, Townsend Street
Cole's Alley, Church Lane
College Court, College Square North
College Place North,      ditto
College Square East
College Square North, King Street
College Street, College Square East
College Street South, Howard Street
Collingwood Street, Earl Street
Commercial Buildings
Commercial Court, Donegall Street
Conley's Court, Millfield
Conlon Street, Old Lodge Road
Conway Street, Falls Road
Cooney's Court, Ann Street
Corn Market, Castle Place
Coronation Place, Little York Street
Corporation Square, Great George's Street
Corporation Street, Victoria Street
Corporation Street
Colton Court, Waring Street
Court Street, New Court House
Covent Garden, Little Patrick Street
Cranstone Place, Antrim Road
Crawford Street, Welsh Street
Crescent, Lower, Malone Road
Crescent, Upper, Malone Road
Cromac Road, Cromac Bridge
Cromac Street, Great Edward Street
Crown Entry, High Street
Crumlin Place, Crumlin Road
Crumlin Terrace,     ditto
Crumlin Road, Antrim Road
Cuddy's Row, New Lodge Road
Culbert's Court, Little York Street
Cullingtree Street, Durham Street
Cullingtree Place, Cullingtree Street
Cumberland Place, Donegall Pass
Cunningham's Court, Mill Street
Curells' Place, Townsend Street
Curell's Row, Townsend Street
Curtis Street, York Street
Damside, Millfield
Davidson's Court, Durham Street
Dayton Place, Townsend Street
Devis Street, Barrack Street (Divis)
Dock Lane, Dock Street
Dock Street, York Street
Dominick Street, Bolton Street
Donaldson's Court, Barrack Street
Donegall Lane, Donegall Street
Donegall Pass, Cromac Road
Donegall Place, Castle Place
Donegall Place Buildings
Donegall Quay
Donegall Square East
Donegall Square North
Donegall Square South
Donegall Square West
Donegall Street
Donegall Street Little, John Street
Donegall Street Place. Donegall Street
Downshire Place, Great Victoria Street
Drake's Lane, Union Place
Drummond's Court, Carrick Hill
Dublin Bridge, Old Malone Road
Duffin's Court, Winetavern Street
Duffy's Place, Boundary Street
Durham Court, Durham Street
Durham Place, off Durham Street
Durham Street, Barrack Street
Durham Street New, Townsend Street
Dyet's Entry, Barrack Street
Eagleson Place, Antrim Road
Earl Lane, Earl Street
Earl Street, York Street
East Street, Verner Street
Economy Place, Henry Street
Edward Street, Robert Street
Edward Street Great, Victoria Street
Edward Street Little, Edward Street
Eglinton Street, Crumlin Road
Eliza Court, Eliza Street
Eliza Place, Eliza Street
Eliza Street, Cromac Street
Ellen's Court, Nile Street
Elliott's Court, Donegall Street
Erskine's Court, Donegall Street
Fairy Place, Old Lodge Road
Faloon's Court, Fleet Street
Falls Court, Falls Road
Falls Court, Durham Street
Falls Road, Townsend Street
Ferguson's Court, Smithfield
First Street, Falls Road
Fisherwick Place
Fitzwilliam Street, Malone Road
Fleet Street, York Street
Fleming's Place, Old Lodge Road
Forcade's Entry, Berry Street
Fountain Lane, Donegall Place
Fountain Place, Old Dublin Road
Fountain Street, Castle Street
Fountainville, Old Malone Road
Fowl Market, St. George's Market
Fox's Row, Durham Street
Francis Street, Smithfield
Franklin Place, Linenhall Street
Frederick Lane, Frederick Street
Frederick Place, Frederick Street
Frederick Street, York Street
Friendly Street, Welsh Street
Fulton's Entry, Hercules Street
Gable Street, Boundary Street
Galway Court, Galway Street
Galway Street, Durham Street
Gamble Street, Tomb Street
Garden Place, Cromac Road
Gardner Street, Peter's Hill
Garmoyle Street, Corporation Street
Gavin's Buildings, Shankhill Road (Shankill)
George's Court, Frederick Street
George's Lane, Montgomery Street
George's Street, Great
George's Street, Little
Gibb's Court, Alexander Street
Glasshouse Street, Boyd Street
Glenfield Place, Ormeau Road
Glengall Place, Great Victoria Street
Glengall Street, Great Victoria Street
Glentilt Place, Old Lodge Road
Gloucester Street, Great Edward Street
Gooseberry Corner, Ballymacarrett
Gordon Street, Hill Street
Grace Street, Hamilton Street
Graham's Entry, High Street
Grattan Court, Grattan Street
Grattan Place, Grattan Street
Grattan Street, Gordon Street
Greenland Street, Shankhill Road (Shankill)
Green Street, Corporation Street
Green's Court, Green Street
Gregg's Lane, West Street
Grove Street, North Queen Street
Hagan's Court, Grattan Street
Hamill Court, Hamill Street
Hamill Street, Barrack Street
Hamilton Court, High Street
Hamilton Place, Stephen Street
Hamilton's Place, Boundary Street
Hamilton Street, Cromac Street
Hammond's Court, Corn Market
Hanna's Court, Shankhill Road (Shankill)
Hanna's Lane, Peter's Hill
Hardinge Street, North Queen Street
Harmony Place, Dublin Road
Harper's Court, Curtis Street
Henrietta Street, Cromac Street
Henry Place, Antrim Road
Henry Square, Green Street
Henry Street, Corporation Street
Hercules Place, Castle Place
Hercules Street, Hercules Place
Herdman's Buildings
High Street, Castle Place
Hill Street, Waring Street
Holme's Court, Verner Street
Hope's Court, Millfield
Hope Street, Breadalbane Place
Hopeton Place, Shankhill Road (Shankill)
Houston's Lane, Seymour Street

Howard Street, Donegall Square South
Howard Street North, Falls Road
Howard Street South, Cromac Road
Hudson's Court, Hudson's Entry
Hudson's Entry, North Street
Hudson's Row, New Lodge Road
Hutchinson Street, Stanley Street
Improvement Place, Lancaster Street
Ingram Place, Donegall Pass
Institution Place, Lettuce Hill
Jacobson's Court, Mill Street
James' Court, Carrick Hill
James' Place, Nelson Street
James' Street South, Howard Street
Johnny's Entry, Talbot Street
Johnston's Buildings
Johnston's Court, Great Edward Street
Johnston's Court, Millfield
John Street, Donegall Street
Joy's Court, Joy's Entry
Joy's Entry, High Street
Joy's Place, Dublin Bridge
Joy Street, Montgomery Street
Keenan's Court, Millfield
Kennedy's Court, North Street
Kennedy's Entry, Devis Street (Divis)
Kennedy's Place, Shankhill Road (Shankill)
Kennedy's Row, Smithfield
Kent Street Lower, John Street
Kent Street Upper, Union Street
Killen Street, College Street
King's Court, Lancaster Street
King Street, Mill Street
King Street Court, King Street
King Street North, Brown Street
Lagan Street, Cromac Street
Lagan Street Upper, Lagan Street
Lagan Village, Ballymacarrett
Lancaster Street, York Street
Law's Lane, North Street
Leadbetter Place
Leeds Street, Cullingtree Street
Legg's lane, High Street
Lemon's Court, Smithfield
Lemon's Lane, Great Edward Street
Letitia Street, Wilson Street
Lettuce Hill, Barrack Street
Lewis's Court, Brown Square
Liddy's Court, Little Donegall Street
Lilliput, Old Carrickfergus Road
Lindsay's Place, Cromac Road
Linen Hall
Linen Hall Street
Linfield & Linfield Road
Lisburn Road, Malone
Long Lane, Church Street
Lynas's Lane, Great Patrick Street
Magee's Lane, Great George's Street
Malone Place. Malone Road
Malone Road Lower, Blackstaff
Malone Road, Old
Market Street, May's Market
Marlborough Street, Princes's Street
Marquis Street, Mill Street
Marshall's Lane, Lynas's Lane
Mary's Place, North Queen Street
Mary's Market, Townsend Street
Mary Street, Park Street
Massey's Court, Durham Street
Mawhinney's Court
Maxwell's Row, Sandy Row
May Street, Clarence Place
May Street Little, Cromac Street
Meadow Lane, Meadow Street
Meadow Street, York Street
Meek's Court, Barrack Street
Meeting-house Lane, William Street
Melbourne Court, Melbourne Street
Melbourne Street, Brown Street
Michael Street, Little George's Street
Millar's Lane, Berry Street
Millfield, Mill Street
Mill Street, Castle Street
Millview Place, Townsend Street
Mitchel's Entry, High Street
Mitchell Street, Gardiner Street
Moffet Street, Henry Street
Molyneaux Street, Little George's Street
Montgomery Street, Chichester Street
Moore's Place, Lower Malone
Morrison's Place, Pound Street
Morrow's Entry, Hill Street
Mountcharles, Old Malone Road
Mount Pottinger, Ballymacarrett
Mountview Terrace
Mullan's Lane, Trafalgar Street
Murphy's Lane, Verner Street
Murphy Street, Verner Street
Murray's Terrace, College Square
Mustard Street, John Street
McAdam's Court, Carrick Hill
McAllen's Place, Shankhill (Shankill)
McAuley's Place, McAuley Street
McAuley Street, Cromac Street
McClean's Entry, Marquis Street
McClelland's Lane, Peter's Hill
McClennaghan's Court, Mill Street
McCrory's Row, Ballymacarrett
McCully's Gate, Peter's Hill
McDowell's Court, Durham Street
McKibbin's Court, North Street
McLarnon's Buildings
McMaster's Row, Durham Street
McMillan's Place, Falls Road
McTier's Court, North Street
Napier's Place
Neeson's Court, Mill Street
Nelson's Buildings
Nelson Court, Nelson Street
Nelson Street, Great Patrick Street
New Court, Tomb Street
New Lodge Place, Lodge Road
New Lodge Road, North Queen Street
New Road, Ballymacarrett
New Row, Berry Street
Nile Street, Nelson Street
North Ann Street, Corporation Street
North Boundary Street
North Howard Street
Northburn Place, Old Lodge Road
Northburn Street, Old Lodge Road
North Queen Street, Carrick Hill
North Queen Street Place
North Street, Bridge Street
O'Haggarty Street, Boundary Street
Old Lodge Place, Old Lodge Road
Old Lodge Road, Peter's Hill
Ormeau Place, Ormeau Road
Ormeau Road, Cromac Road
Ormeau Street, Newtownbreda Road
Ormond Market, Patrick Street
Orr's Entry, High Street
Oxford Street, May Street
Pakenham Place
Park Street, Stanhope Street
Patrick Lane, Patrick Street
Patrick Street, York Street
Patrick Street Little, York Street
Patterson's Place
Patterson's Place, Donegall Square
Peel's Place, Shankhill Road (Shankill)
Peter's Hill, North Street
Pilot Street, Corporation Street
Plunkett's Court, Carrick Hill
Plunkett's Place, Antrim Road
Police Place, William Street South
Police Square, Victoria Street
Poplar Court, Gratton Street
Portland Place, Portland Street
Portland Street, St. George's Street
Portview, Ballymacarrett
Posnett's Place, Donegall Pass
Pound Street, Barrack Street
Pottinger's Entry, High Street
Pottinger's Place, Ballymacarrett
Prince's Court, Prince's Street
Prince's Dock
Prince's Street, Queen's Square
Prospect Terrace
Queen's College, Malone Road
Queen's Island
Queen's Quay, Ballymacarrett
Queen's Square, High Street
Queen Street, Castle Street
Queen Street Upper, Wellington Place
Quigley's Court, Cromac Street
Quinn's Entry, High Street
Raphael Court, Raphael Street
Raphael Street, Cromac Street
Renwick Place, Malone Road
Riley's Place, Cromac Street
Ritchie's Place, North Street
River Street, Welsh Street
Robert Court, Mustard Street
Robert Street, Hill Street
Rochfort Place, College Court
Roundhill, Ballymacarrett
Roseann Place, Old Carrick Road
Rosemary Street, Bridge Street
Rose Street, Falls Road
Round Entry, North Street
Royal Terrace, Lisburn Road
Roy's Court, Roy Street
Roy Street, Stanfield Street
Russell Street, Cromac Street
Sackville Place, Sackville Street
Sackville Street, Townsend Street
Salter's Court, Barrack Street
Saltpan Row, Ballymacarrett
Samuel Street, Winetavern Street
Sarah Street, Frederick Street
Seaview Place, Ballymacarrett
Second Street, North Howard Street
Seymour Lane, Seymour Street
Seymour Street, Chichester Street
Shankhill Road, Townsend Street (Shankill)
Sheals' Entry, Carrick Hill
Shipboy Street, Nelson Street
Ship Street, York Street
Ship Street Back, Ship Street
Ship Street Little, Dock Street
Short Strand, Ballymacarrett
Skipper Street, High Street
Sir Henry's Buildings
Smithfield, Berry Street
Smith Street, Lagan Street
Southwell Street, Henry Street
Spamount, Old Carrick Road
Spencer Street
Stanfield Court, Stanfield Street
Stanfield Street, Verner Street
Stanhope Street, Old Lodge Road
Stanley Lane, Little York Street
Stanley Place, Little York Street
Stanley Street, Albert Street
St. Ann's Buildings, Donegall Street
Staunton Street, Verner Street
Steam Mill Lane, Gamble Street
Stephen Street, Little Donegall Street
Store Lane, Queen's Square
Stormont Court, Durham Street
Suffern's Entry, North Street
Sugar House Entry, High Street
Sussex Place, Alfred Street
Sussex Street, York Street
Talbot Court, Grattan Street
Talbot Street, Donegall Street
Tanner's Court, Millfield
Taylor's Row, Carrick Hill
Tea Lane, Lower Malone
Telfair's Entry, Ann Street
Third Street, Fall's Road
Thomas Court, George's Lane
Thomas Street, Lancaster Street
Thomas Street North, York Street
Thompson's Entry, Millfield
Tomb Street, Waring Street
Torren's Row, Hercules Street
Torren's Market, Hercules Street
Townsend Place, Townsend Street
Townsend Street, Shankhill Road (Shankill)
Trafalgar Street, Corporation Street
Trinity Street, Antrim Road
Union Place, Lancaster Street
Union Street, Donegall Street
Unity Street, Trinity Street
University Square
Upton Street, Wall Street
Valentine Street, Henry Street
Vere Street, York Street
Verner's Lane, Verner Street
Verner Street, Cromac Street
Victoria Court, off Durham Street
Victoria Place, Victoria Street
Victoria Street, Corporation Street
Victoria Street Great, Glengall Place
Victoria Street Little
Victoria Terrace, Old Malone Road
Walker's Lane, Frederick Street
Wall Street, Carrick Hill
Waring Street
Waring Street Place, Waring Street
Warehouse Lane, Waring Street
Washington Street, Frederick Street
Waugh's Court, North Street
Wellington Court, Wellington Street
Wellington Place, Donegall Square
Wellington Square, Falls Road
Wellington Street, Fisherwick Place
Wellwood Place, Great Victoria Street
Welsh Street, Lagan Street
Wesley Lane, Wesley Street
Wesley Place, Botanic Road
(no Wesley Street?)
West Street, Smithfield
Wheeler's Place, Ballymacarrett
William's Lane, Green Street
William's Place, Wellwood Place
William's Row, Little George's Street
William Street, Church Street
William Street South, Arthur Square
Wills' Place, May's Fields
Wilson Street, Millfield
Windsor Place, Great Victoria Street
Winecellar Entry, High Street
Winetavern Street, North Street
Woodstock Place, Ballymacarrett
York Lane, York Street
York Road, York Street
York Street, Donegall Street
York Street Little, Great Patrick Street




          The first historical notice of Belfast occurs in the records of the twelfth century.  About the middle of that period, we find that a fort existed in this locality, which was destroyed in the year 1178, by the celebrated John de Courcy, to whom a grant of the entire province of Ulster had been made by Henry the Second.  From that period, little is known of the place, or the changes it underwent, until the invasion of the celebrated Edward Bruce, in 1315, at which time we learn that Belfast was a "good town and stronghold," the ancient fort having given place to a substantial castle.  It appears that the English and the native Ulster Chieftains hale alternate possession of the town and castle, during a lengthened series of sanguinary conflicts, until the year 1575, when a large tract of territory, including the Castle of Belfast, which had been several times, during the civil wars, destroyed and re-built, was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Thomas Smith on certain conditions.  These conditions not having been fulfilled, the entire estate of the English was granted in 1612, to the Lord Deputy Chichester, then newly created a Baron, his heirs, etc., lords of the castle and manor, and authorised the borough to send two members to Parliament.  The first Sovereign was Thomas Vesey, Esq., and the first Parliamentary representatives were Sir John Blennerhasset, Baron of the Exchequer, and George Trevallion, Esquire.
          The population of Belfast and its vicinity, which was a distinct territory at this period, mainly consisted of English and Scotch settlers, according to the policy of James I., who resolved, wisely, to plant his Irish possessions with colonists from Great Britain.  The town itself was still as exceedingly insignificant place, consisting only of the castle, a Church, and a collection of houses, known by the name of "the village."  But under the new government it rapidly began to enlarge itself; and, from this era, symptoms of its future prosperity and importance began to manifest themselves.
          In the year 1637, Belfast obtained, by purchase, from the Corporation of Carrickfergus, the right of importing commodities, at one-third of the duties payable at other places, and it thus became a port of considerable trade.  Even in the midst of the alarms and misfortunes to which the inhabitants were subjected during the war between Charles I and the Parliament, and the rage of sectarian strife, which reached even this remote quarter of English rule, the commerce of Belfast continued slowly but steadily to increase, so much so that, in the period from 1683 to 1686, we find that 67 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 3,307 tons, belonged to the port.  Previously, the military defences of the town had been much strengthened by Charles I., who granted 1,000 to the then governor, Colonel Chichester, newly created Earl of Donegall, for that purpose.  Belfast, during the civil war, was thrice in the hands of the Parliamentarians, and it was under the protectorate of Cromwell that it made its first and most rapid strides towards social and commercial importance.
          The charter was renewed in 1688 by James II., the number of burgesses being raised to thirty-five.  The policy of James was, however, so distasteful to the inhabitants generally, that they declared for the Prince of Orange immediately on his arrival.  It was not, however, until after the reduction of James's adherents, by the Duke of Schomberg, that Belfast could be properly described as under the sway of the new monarch.  On the 14th of June, 1690, King William the Third visited Belfast, where he remained for five nights, lodging in the house of Sir William Franklin, which stood on the present site of the Donegall Arms Hotel.  It was during this visit that his Majesty authorised the grant of 1,200 a-year, to the Presbyterian ministers of Ulster, who had suffered greatly in his cause, and this was the origin of the Regium Donum.  It was in 1642 that the first Presbytery had been held in Carrickfergus, and in 1645, that the first Presbyterian congregation was established in Belfast.
          Though the trade of the town and port had greatly increased for some time previous to the Revolution settlement, the town itself was extremely insignificant.  The houses were thatched; goods were exposed for sale chiefly in the open streets, and there was no public buildings save the Castle, the Church, the Market house, and the "Long Bridge," which had been just finished.  Nevertheless, the population was becoming numerous, and soon began to prove how much they appreciated the blessings of peace and good government.
          The progress of the town from this period until the time when Belfast became one of the most flourishing and prosperous communities in the island, will be chiefly noted by the history of each of its present institutions under their distinctive heads.  During the reign of Queen Anne and the two first monarchs of the House of Hanover, the inhabitants were distinguished not more for their love of the arts of peaceful industry, that for their loyal attachment to the throne.  The last remnant of the semi-barbarous period, through the mists of which we have to look for fragmentary notices of the early origin and progress of the town - the celebrated castle of Belfast - was destroyed by fire in 1708, the three daughters of the then Earl of Donegall having perished in the conflagration.  Volunteer corps were formed for the first time in the period rendered memorable by the menaced invasion of the Pretender, and these corps were effectually organised in 1760, when the French Admiral, Thurot, landed at Carrickfergus, and reduced the garrison there, as a preparatory step to the intended capture of Belfast.  The Volunteers were again enrolled in 1779, on the rumour of another French invasion; and in the course of a few years, the movement being general throughout the country, they presented a well disciplined force of 5,000 men, exercising a political influence, which was at last considered so hostile to the English Government, that it was thought necessary to extinguish the corps in 1793.  Notwithstanding the proclamations of the Government, the military organisation survived, and was directed to the vain effort of securing independence of English rule.  Arrests and penalties were alike unavailing, and, in 1795, seventy-two associations of "United Irishmen" were represented at a meeting in Belfast, held with the view of completing arrangements for action.  The news of another French invasion revived the spirit of loyalty in 1798, and, when the rebellion of that year broke out, the yeomanry of Belfast and the adjoining counties were found on the side of the Government troops at Antrim and Ballynahinch.  After the passing of the Act of Union, the Municipal Government of Belfast was materially altered by the appointment of Police Commissioners and "Life Commissioners," in conjunction with the former Corporation; these new local bodies being invested, the former with the levying of taxes for public expenses, and the latter with powers for regulating the paving, lighting and cleansing of the town.
          The first Sovereign, under the new order of things, was John Brown, Esq., and, under this local Government, the borough continued until the passing of the Municipal Act of 1841, in conformity with which, the Corporation now consists of a Mayor, ten Aldermen, and thirty Town Councillors.  The first Mayor of Belfast, was George Dunbar, Esq.  Various other public bodies were incorporated at different times - such as the Harbour Commissioners, the Water Commissioners, etc., under whose management, in conjunction with the Town Council, the borough and port progressed to such a degree of prosperity, that Belfast has, at length, earned the acknowledged title of the commercial metropolis of Ireland.


          Belfast, properly so called, is situate in the Barony of Upper Belfast, in the County of Antrim; but the large suburb of Ballymacarrett, which is only separated from the town by the river Lagan, forms a portion of the County Down.  The whole comprises an area of 1,872 acres, of which 576 acres are occupied by Ballymacarrett.  Of this area, 1,542 acres are within the Municipal boundary, and 330 without.
          The parish of Belfast, otherwise called Shankhill (Shankill), in which the borough is included, lies chiefly in the Barony of Upper Belfast and partly in the Barony of Lower Belfast.  It is nine miles and a quarter long, by five in breadth, and contains, according to the Ordnance survey, 19,559 stature acres - exclusive of the borough, 18,263 acres.  The town is 80 Irish miles distant from Dublin, in lat. 54 deg. 36 min. 8.5 sec. North, and long. 5 deg. 55 min. 53.7 sec. West.  It stands at the mouth of the Lagan, where that river expands into the Belfast Lough.
          For the purposes of commerce, it is most commodiously situated, all the natural impediments to the navigation of the harbour and lough having been recently removed by the energy and industry of the inhabitants.  The site of the town is low, a great portion of it consisting of land reclaimed from the sea, and few parts being more than six feet above high water mark; owing to which cause, the streets in the neighbourhood of the river are occasionally inundated, the fall not being sufficient to carry off the floods which descent, in rainy weather, from the hills in the vicinity.  Except, however, during the prevalence of epidemics, the town is considered healthy, and, when the sanitary regulations, now contemplated and partly in operation, are completed, few manufacturing centres in United Kingdom will, probably, be found more generally free from the noxious influences which induce disease.  The scenery of the suburbs and adjacent districts is not surpassed in picturesqueness by the environs of any other Irish town.  From every elevated point a series of splendid prospects may be obtained.  The harbour commands a noble view down the Lough, which is twelve miles in length by five in width, bounded on the Northern shore by a range of basaltic mountains, one of which, Cave Hill, is broken on its South-Eastern face into abrupt precipes, and, over-looking the town at a distance of only three miles, forms a grand and peculiar feature in the landscape.  The opposite, or County Down shore, rises gently from the level of the Lough in swelling uplands, whose wavy outline well contrasts with the sterner aspect of the Antrim Hills.  On both sides the eye rests with pleasure upon a succession of handsome villas, richly wooded slopes, well cultivated farms, and smiling towns.  Westward and Southward, the view is equally striking.  The valley of the Lagan, a broad and fertile tract, expands as far as the eye can reach along the base of a verdant and graceful range of mountains, of considerable elevation, with undulating outline.  In every direction, the aspect of the suburban districts combines the charms of rural beauty and elegant retirement, with the enlivening evidences of manufacturing industry.
          The river Lagan, which separates the counties of Antrim and Down, is crossed by three bridges, and several boat ferries.  The Queen's Bridge, built on the site of the old Long Bridge, is a massive granite structure, with five arches.  It was opened for public traffic in 1844.
          The population of Belfast in 1834 amounted to 60,813, of which 10,388 were members of the Established Church; 23,576 Presbyterians; 19,712 of the Roman Catholic persuasion; and 1137 of other persuasion.  In 1841, the population, within the municipal boundary, was 70,447; without, 4,861; total, 75,308, of which 68,611 were in Antrim, and 6,697 in Down; the total of inhabited houses being 10,906, averaging 6.9 persons to a house.  Since the year 1834, there is no record of the proportions belonging to the different religious denominations.  According to the census of 1851, the population is 99,660, including Ballymacarrett; the increase between 1841 and 1851 being no less than 24,352, a larger increase than that exhibited by any other town in Ireland within the same period, numerically, though the rate of increase in the town of Galway has been higher.  This population of 99,660, consists of 46,443 males and 53,217 females.  The total number of families is 20,553.  The total number of families is 20,553.  The number of houses on the 31st of March, 1851, the date at which the census was taken, was 15,100, of which 12,965 were inhabited, 1,050 uninhabited, and 85 in process of building.  The increase of inhabited houses since 1841, is 3,059, being at the rate of 28 per cent.  The decrease of uninhabited houses, during the same period, has been 856, being at the rate of 44 per cent.  The increase of houses in progress of building since 1841 has been 22, being at the rate of 34 per cent.  Both in the census of 1841 and in that of 1851, Belfast is exhibited as a separate district.


          The total number of places of worship in Belfast is forty-eight; the prevailing denominations are those of the Established, Presbyterians, Wesleyan, and Roman Catholic Churches.  The Established Church possesses ten religious edifices, viz.:- St. Anne's (the Parish Church), St. George's Christ Church, Magdalen Church, Shankhill Church (Shankill), Trinity Church, Malone Chapel of Ease, St. Paul's Church, Ballymacarrett, and the Military Chapel , Infantry Barracks.  A new Episcopal Church (St. John's), is about to be erected near Oxford Street.  There are twenty-one Presbyterian Churches, of which there are, in connection with the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the following, viz.:- Rosemary Street, Fisherwick Place, May Street, Donegall Street, Linenhall Street, York Street, Alfred Street, Alfred Place, Townsend Street, Great George's Street, College Square, Ballymacarrett, Malone, Berry Street, Bethel Chapel, and Crumlin Road.  In connection with the Unitarian body, the following:- First Unitarian, Second Unitarian (both in Rosemary Street), and Third Unitarian in York Street; in connection with the Covenanters, the following:- Dublin Road (Eastern Reformed), and College Square South (Reformed Presbyterian).  There are seven houses of worship in connection with the Methodist Societies, viz.:- Donegall (Wesleyan), York Street (New Connexion), Frederick Street (Wesleyan), Ballymacarrett (Wesleyan), Wesley Place Wesleyan, Donegall Place (Primitive, and Melbourne Street.  The Roman Catholic Chapels are four, viz.:- St. Mary's, St. Patrick's, St. Malachy's and the Ballymacarrett Chapel.  The Society of Friends have one Chapel, in Frederick Street; the Independents one, in Donegall Street; the Baptists one, in Academy Street; and the Latter-Day Saints, or Mormonites, one, in King Street.  There are, besides, two Wesleyan Chapels about to be built - one in Shankhill (Shankill), and the other to accommodate the dense manufacturing population on the Falls Road.  The former is to be in connexion with the Frederick Street Congregation, and the latter with Donegall Square East Church.  Almost every one of the leading congregations in the town, of whatever persuasion, has a Sabbath School, and many of them a daily school, in connexion with its place of public worship.
          The greater number of the religious edifices are handsome structures, some of them built in a style of considerable architectural taste.  St. Anne's Church, in Donegall Street, erected in 1778, has a fine Doric Portico, Ionic tower, and Corinthian steeple.  Trinity Church, near the Antrim Road, built in 1843, at private expense, is a handsome Gothic structure, with an exceedingly graceful octagonal spire.  St. George's Church, in High Street, erected in 1812, possesses one of the finest Corinthian tetrastyle porticoes in Ireland - the gift of Dr. Alexander, then bishop of the diocese, and formerly the chief ornament of the palace of Ballyscullion, built by the celebrated Earl of Bristol, when Bishop of Derry.  The Church of the First Presbyterian Congregation in connexion with the General Assembly, in Rosemary Street, is a noble edifice, with a grand Doric portico, reached by twenty steps, and finished in the interior in a style of costly magnificence.  The Fisherwick Place Presbyterian Church, opened in 1827, boasts of an elegant portico of four Ionic columns, with capitals imitated from the temple of Ilyssus.  It was erected by Mr. Millar, a native architect, at a cost of 10,000.  The May Street Presbyterian Church, opened in 1829, has a recessed Ionic portico, with two massive fluted columns and four pilasters; it is of large dimensions, and its interior is very elegantly designed and decorated.  Christ Church possesses a massive cut stone front, with an Ionic portico of two pillars surmounted by an entablature.  The Wesleyan Church, Donegall Square East, is an exceedingly handsome edifice, the facade consisting almost entirely of a hexastyle Corinthian portico.  The interior is light, cheerful, and finished with great attention to elegance and convenience.  St. Malachy's Chapel, in McClean's field, is a large brick buildings, in the Tudor style, cruciform in shape, with several turrets surmounting the gables, and decorated in the interior with an exquisite and elaborate traceried ceiling.  The newly erected Church of St. Paul's, in York Street, is a Gothic structure, in the early style, with lancet windows, cut stone belfry, and crocket finials.


          Perhaps no town in the empire can boast of a greater number of educational establishments, in proportion to its size, than Belfast.  They may be enumerated, according to their dates, as follows:- The Belfast Academy, the Royal Academical Institution, the Brown Street Schools, the Lancasterian or Ragged Schools, the National Schools, the Ulster Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, the Educational and Industrial School, the Queen's College, and the Government School of Design.
          The Belfast Academy - the first important seminary established in the town, was founded in 1786.  It early obtained a high reputation, from the ability with which it was conducted under its successive principals, and is still regarded as one of the best seminaries for classical and mercantile education in the kingdom.  The success of this academy first suggested the plan of the Royal Academical Institution.
          The Royal Academical Institution was founded by voluntary subscription in 1810, when the proprietors became incorporated by Act of Parliament, and received a public grant of 1,500 per annum, increased, in 1834 to 3,500.  A medical school was added in 1836.  It originally included two schools, one for the education of pupils intended for the learned professors, and the other for instructions in the ordinary branches of education.  Lectureships were included in the foundation to the number of seven, each professor receiving a salary of 150, besides two professorships of divinity with a salary of 100 a-year each.  The government of the Institution consisted of a president, four vice-presidents, twenty managers, and eight visitors.  For a long period of years the Royal Academical Institution continued to afford instruction to the students of the Orthodox Presbyterian bodies of Ulster, until the General Assembly ceased to be connected with it; and, in 1849, the collegiate department was dissolved and transferred to the Queen's College.  The schools, however, still occupy the main portion of the building, and continue in a state of great efficiency, under six masters.  The building is a large plain edifice of brick, pointed with stone-work, fronting the noble area of College Square on the South side.
          The Brown Street Sunday, Daily and Infant School was founded in 1812.  It forms a commodious edifice, in which about 500 children of both sexes are instructed in the ordinary branches of a mercantile education, for the small sum of one penny per week for each pupil.  The female schools are superintended by a committee of ladies.  To this establishment, Belfast is indebted for the rescue of a large portion of its poorer population from vice and vice and ignorance, and their introduction to the means of acquiring respectability and competence.
          The Lancasterian School, in Frederick Street, was founded in 1811, for the instruction of the labouring classes.  A few years since, a Female Industrial School, for the instruction of poor girls in needle-work and embroidery, was established in the building, supported partly by voluntary contributions, and partly by the proceeds of the work executed.  The institution now feeds, clothes and educates ninety poor girls, fitting them for domestic servants and other useful avocations.  Here, also, is a "ragged" school, the first of the kind established in Ireland.
          The Ulster Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind was opened in 1845, at the cost of 11,000, by voluntary subscription, having originated in a previous establishment situated in College Street, carried on upon a much smaller scale.  It is capable of affording the blessings of religious and secular instruction to one hundred pupils.  The Institution is under the management of a committee of the subscribers, a principal and male and female assistants.  The building is a superb structure in the Elizabethian style, situated in Malone, and occupying a considerable area.
          The Queen's College was opened in October, 1849.  It is a fundamental principle of the establishment that the religious opinions of the students shall not be in any way interfered with by the professors.  The number of matriculated students at the opening was 108.  The building is one of the finest in Ulster.  It occupies a noble site on the Botanic Road, in the centre of elegantly laid-out grounds, neighbouring the Botanic Garden.  The cost of the structure was nearly 30,000.  It is an edifice in the Tudor style of architecture, with a facade in front of 600 feet in length.  The material is a bright red brick, profusely ornamented with cut-stone.  It consists of a lofty entrance tower, in the basement storey of which is the Hall, two slightly recessed ranges of building on either side, and two wings, extending backwards to a considerable depth, and forming the Northern and Southern faces of the edifice.  In the rere, the extremities of the wings are connected together by the cloisters or ambulatories, the whole forming a square massive pile.  The examination hall is an exceedingly large and lofty room, being eighty feet in length, by forty in width, and forty in height.  The North wing contains the lecture-rooms, laboratory, etc., and the Southern, the apartments of the President and Professors.  Its government consists of a President, Vice-President, thirteen Professors in the faculty of arts, which includes engineering and agriculture; five in the faculty of medicine; and two in the faculty of law.  There are four Deans of Residences. a Registrar, a Librarian, and a Bursar.  The College is endowed with thirty scholarships of 24; eleven of 20; four of 15; and ten senior scholarships of 40 each.  The Queen's College, Belfast, as those of Cork and Galway, is constituted a College of the Queen's University in Ireland, and its Professors are considered Professors of that University.
The Government School of Design occupies the Northern wing of the Academical Institution.  It is supported partly by a Government endowment, and partly by local aid.  It gives instruction to pupils of both sexes in the arts of design and decoration, with a special view to the improvement to the staple manufactures of the country.  The school was opened in 1850.  It is under the management of a general committee, and is in connexion with the Parent School of Design in Somerset House, London.
          There are twenty-eight National Schools in the town and vicinity of Belfast, besides a considerable number of schools under the patronage of the Church Education Society.  A male and female school is attached to the institution of the Belfast Charitable Society, to the Union Workhouse, and to the Infantry Barracks.


          Amongst the literary and scientific institutions now existing in Belfast, the first place must be given to the Natural History and Philosophical Society, which holds its meetings in the Museum, a neat building situate in College Square North.  This Society was the first of its kind established in Ireland.  A paper is read twice a month by each member in rotation, and, during the winter, a monthly lecture is given, which is open to friends of the members.  The Museum contains a fine collection, scarcely inferior to that of the Royal Dublin Society, or of the Trinity College Museum.  It has latterly been much enriched by the contributions of Sir James E. Tennent, M.P., one of the most distinguished members of the Society.  It is open to the public, at a moderate charge, every day except Sunday.
          The Belfast Society for the Promotion of Knowledge, holds its meetings in the White Linen Hall, and possesses a library containing upwards of 10,000 volumes.  There are also several  minor literary societies connected with the greater educational establishments, and a Society called the Essayist Club, which meets once a month, for the reading and discussion of original papers by the members.  The Belfast Working Classes' Association meets in temporary apartments in the Castle Chambers, where there is a news-room and the nucleus of a library.  This Society has it in contemplation to found an Athenaeum for Belfast.
          The Belfast Medical Society meets once a month in the General Hospital, in the library of which building there is a valuable collection of books for the use of the members.
          The Anacreontic Society, instituted for the cultivation of vocal and instrumental music, holds its meetings in the Music Hall, a spacious building in May Street.  The members meet once a week, and, in the winter, give a series of concerts to the public.
          At a short distance from the town, in the vicinity of Queen's College, are the Gardens of the Royal Botanical and Horticultural Society, the grounds of which are of considerable extent, tastefully laid out, and containing a noble range of conservatories, and a large collection of native and exotic plants.  Several times in the course of each year, there are exhibitions of plants and flowers in the Garden, at which prizes for successful competition are awarded.
          In December 1851, was founded a Social Inquiry Society, on the plan of the Statistical Society of Dublin, the members of which hold their meetings in the rooms of the Chamber of Commerce.
          The Royal Society for the Promotion and Improvement of the growth of Flax in Ireland, was established by a number of gentlemen connected with the flax trade in Belfast, in the year 1841, with the view of introducing a better system of handling flax in its growth and preparation, and to increase the quantity grown to the amount required for the British and Irish linen trade.  The Society has latterly directed its attention chiefly to the provinces of Leinster, Munster and Connaught.  It keeps up a staff of agriculturists, who are trained in Belgium, in the most approved system of management, and who are sent to give instructions to all parts of Ireland, where there are farming societies or landed proprietors subscribing to its funds.  The Lord Lieutenant has, during the last four years, annually placed a sum of 1,000 at the disposal of the Society, in aid of its operations in the South and West.  The Queen and Prince Albert are patrons of the Society.  The Lord Lieutenant vice-patron, and the Marquis of Downshire its president.
          The Chemico-Agricultural Society of Ulster, instituted for the dissemination of practical knowledge on the connection of chemistry with agriculture, and for the analysis of soils and manures, etc., meets every Friday.  The President is the Marquis of Downshire, and the chemist, who is its principal practical officer, and to whose labours its success from the commencement is mainly attributable, is Professor Hodges, M.D.  To forward the views of this Society, a laboratory has been opened, where analyses and experiments are made, advice given, and pupils instructed.  Arrangements are in progress for an appropriate museum and library.  The newspapers published in Belfast are the following:- The News-Letter, published continuously since A.D. 1737 (three times a week); the Commercial Chronicle (three times a week); the Northern Whig (three times a week); the Banner of Ulster (twice a week); the Mercury (three times a week); the Vindicator, Mercantile Register, and Ulster General Advertiser (once a week).  In the winter of 1850, an Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts was founded, and its first exhibition of paintings and sculpture was opened with so much success, that these is reason to believe it will be a permanent Institution.
          There are several news-rooms - viz., the Commercial News-room, in the Commercial Buildings; the Linen Hall News-room, in the White Linen Hall; the People's News-room, 17 Castle Place; and others of a minor character.  A public news-room, on a large scale and liberal terms, is about to be established in the magnificent hall of the newly erected Corn Exchange, Victoria Street.
          The monetary institutions of Belfast are the following :- The Belfast Banking Company, whose establishment, a beautiful structure in the Italian Palatial style, occupies the site of the Old Exchange, at the foot of Donegall Street; the Northern Banking Company, who have recently erected a magnificent Bank of cut Portland stone in the Ionic style, in Victoria Street, the most costly structure in the town, proportionally to its size; the Bank of Ireland, Donegall Place; the Ulster Banking Company, Waring Street; the Provincial Banking Company, Donegall Street; and the Belfast Savings' Bank, King Street.
          The principal poor-relief institutions are those of the Belfast Charitable Society, and the Union Workhouse.  The Charitable Society was incorporated by Act of Parliament, in 1774.  Its Poorhouse and Infirmary constitute a handsome structure, ornamented with a turret and spire, on the Antrim Road, at the head of Donegall Street.  It provides in-door relief to decayed persons of both sexes, besides many children who are instructed in useful avocations, and afterwards apprenticed out to the trading community.  It originally derived its main support from annual subscriptions, but having, by its Act, obtained special privileges, grants of ground, etc., the proceeds therefrom, with the interest of bequests, render it nearly independent of the contributions of the public.  The Union Workhouse was opened in 1841, but has since been nearly doubled in extent by the addition of new buildings for in-door relief, schools, and a large infirmary with 600 beds.  It supports the great mass of the pauperism of the district.  The Union comprises twelve electoral districts, for which there are twenty-two elected, and twelve ex-officio guardians.  Besides these establishments, there is a Destitute Sick Society, a Clothing Society, a Ladies' Connaught Relief Society, a Girls' Industrial School, the Ulster Female Penitentiary (established 1831), and the Magdalen Asylum, founded in 1842, in connexion with which is an Episcopal Chapel, supporting a chaplaincy, in Donegall Pass.
          The following are the principal benevolent associations:- The Association for Discountenancing Vice, the Auxiliary Bible Society, the Auxiliary to the Hibernian School Society, the Auxiliary to the Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews, and the Seamen's Friend Society.


          The Harbour of Belfast was originally a creek of the river Lagan, in the entrance to the stream now arched over in High Street, and was under no regular government.  In 1637, the Earl of Stafford, having purchased from the Corporation of Carrickfergus the privilege of receiving to their use one-third of all the custom duties imported into that town, with other trading monopolies, the trade of Belfast for the first time became important, and in 1729, by Act of Parliament, a separate Corporation was appointed for the conservancy of the Harbour, whose powers were increased by the 25th George III. chap. 64.  The artificial fords were soon after removed, and the river deepened.  In 1791 a platform for graving was made, and one graving dock was opened in 1800, and another in 1826.  Up to 1829, however, very little beyond this had been done for the improvement of the Harbour, notwithstanding the increasing trade of the port, partly because the proprietors of the town and all the property in its vicinity - the Donegall family - themselves wished to form the Harbour, and were, therefore, reluctant to lease any ground for the purpose to the Ballast Corporation; and partly because the question was taken up and held in suspense by the Government for several years.  The Government, however, having abandoned the undertaking, and the Corporation being left to their own resources, the latter obtained copies of all reports and estimates in possession of the Government, and, in addition called in the services of several eminent engineers.  Amongst these were Messrs. Walker & Burges, whose plan having met with the approbation of all parties interested, was adopted by the Harbour Corporation, and an amended Act, obtained in August 1831, at length gave the necessary powers to carry into effect the improvement of the port.  The old winding channel, always tedious of navigation, was superseded in 1840, by the first portion of a new channel, which was then completed to the extent of one mile, extending from Prince's Dock to below the Mile-end water.  In 1841, another bill was obtained, for the purpose of completing this improvement, and under its provisions the New Cut was continued (with a short interval yet unfinished) to Garmoyle, by an embanked channel, which was opened on the 10th of July, 1849.  The new channel has nine feet of water at low tides, thus enabling steamers and large sailing vessels to come up to the quays at neap tides, and vessels drawing eighteen feet of water, at spring tides.  Within the last few years the most extensive improvements have been made in the quayage of the port, which now consists of two splendid quays, extending on either side of the river from Queen's Bridge to the Mile-water, and two capacious docks, called respectively the Prince's (formerly Dunbar's) and the Clarendon Docks.  The former is reserved for foreign shipping.  The latter was opened in September, 1850, by his Excellency the Earl of Clarendon, during a visit to the town.  On the North, or Antrim side of the river, the quays are exclusively reserved for steamers and vessels in the foreign trade.  These are flanked by extensive stores, offices, etc., and a range of handsome sheds.  On the opposite side there are a coal exchange, and offices and yards, for the accommodation of the coal merchants; and the quay itself is reserved for colliers and coasting vessels.  Opposite the Eastern extremity of the Southern, or Queen's Quay, is Queen's Island, upon which has been erected a Patent Slip, which gives accommodation to vessels of 1,000 tons register, whilst undergoing repairs.  Adjoining the ship-building ground of Messrs. A. McLaine and Sons, there is a second Patent Slip, for vessels under 400 tons register.  The island is neatly planted and laid out with promenades, for the recreation of the public.  There is a Battery at the Eastern extremity; and nearly in the centre was erected, in the summer of 1851, an elegant structure of glass and wood, for the purpose of annual bazaars, or fetes, in aid of the General Hospital.  The cost of the recent improvements of the port amounted to 405,519, raised in loans, on the security of the harbour dues.  Several ship-building yards occupy a large space in the vicinity of the docks.  A screw-pile light-house, connected with which is a pilot establishment, stands near the embouchure of the river; it rises thirty feet above high water, and exhibits a fixed red light.  There is a second light-house, besides beacons.  There are thirty-nine pilots belonging to the harbour.  The present Custom House is an old unsightly building, quite inadequate to the wants of the port; but it is to be replaced by a handsome and commodious structure.  It may be mentioned here that, during the progress of the Harbour Improvements of Belfast, in deepening the river, the steam dredges then in use for that purpose turned up, in the course of those operations, some of the stones from which it is stated Belfast originally derived its name, Beala-fearsad, "The Town of the Ford."  Mr. McWilliams, who has at present the charge of the Harbour Commissioners' machinery on Queen's Island, discovered that those stones were worn upon the upper surface, and that the causeway, or ford, has been about 40 feet in width.  It was protected from the action of the influx and efflux of the tide by piles at either side, the removal of which, in the course of the Harbour Improvements, was a matter of very considerable difficulty, and one which, before the cause was discovered, very considerably injured the machinery of the river deepening apparatus.  We are not aware that the whole of these remarkable relics have been preserved, but we believe that the antiquarian can have access to some of them, on making inquiry in the proper quarter.
          In 1786, the total number of ships that entered the port of Belfast amounted to 772 vessels, with a tonnage of 34, 287 tons, and a tonnage revenue of 1,553; in 1850, the number of vessels entering the port was 4,490, with a tonnage of 624,223 tons, and a revenue of 29,012.  At the close of the year 1851, the number of vessels registered as belonging to the port was 448, with an aggregate tonnage of 74,540 tons, of which, in the foreign trade, were 137 vessels, with a tonnage of 57,996 tons, and in the coasting trade, 311 vessels, with a tonnage of 16,544 tons.  During the year 1851, 17 vessels, with a registered tonnage of 10,506 tons, were added to the foreign-trade shipping; and, during the same period, 22 vessels, registered at 1,544 tons, were added to those engaged in the coasting trade.  The aggregate tonnage of the steamers trading between Belfast and England and Scotland, amounts to 7,298 tons.  The total number of vessels which entered the harbour in 1851 was 5,016.  The aggregate tonnage was 650,938: viz., steamers, 309, 783; foreign vessels, 84,716; cross-Channel and coasters, 244,830; Irish Channel, 13,609.  The harbour rates on goods, in 1851, amounted to 8,330 9s. 10d., being an increase of 868 12s. 8d. over 1850.  The tonnage dues in 1851 amounted to 10,735, being an increase of 422 over 1850.  The quayage dues in 1851 amounted to 2,670 14s., being an increase of 326. 12s. over 1850.  The ballast dues in 1851 amounted to 2,670 14s., being an increase of 500 18s. over 1850.  The quantity of coals delivered at the quays in 1851 was 295,513 tons, being an increase of nearly 42,000 tons over 1850 - a fair test by which to form an opinion as to the increased manufacturing industry and general comfort of the community.
          The customs duties paid at the port of Belfast, for each of the last three years, ending 5th Jan., amounted, for 1849, to 346,426 16s. 2d.; for 1850, to 362,990 12s. 2d.; for 1851, to 369,415 12s. 1d.  The increase of the year ending 5th January, 1852, over that ending 5th January, 1851, is, therefore, 6,424 19s. 11d.; and over the year preceding, 22,988 16s. 11d.
          The commerce of Belfast is greater than that of any other port in Ireland.  It ranks next to that of Leith.  The principal exports consist of corn, meal and flour, cured provisions, linen yarn, feathers, flax and tow, cotton manufacturers, linen cloth, green and tanned hides, horses, eggs, etc.  The chief articles of export, however, are the various linen fabrics, value 3,320,000; muslins and other cotton manufacturers, 1,400,000; cured provisions, 400,000; flax and tow (unmanufactured), 40,000; and the total value of the general exports amounts to about 5,600,000.  By much the largest proportion of the exports of Belfast are transferred, for re-shipment, to Liverpool, London, Greenock, etc., forming in value, perhaps, almost one-half of the entire value of exports from the first of those ports, thus establishing the character of Belfast as the chief commercial port of Ireland.  The chief imports are timber, grain, flax, flaxseed, sugar, barilla, fruit, etc.
          With the West Indian colonies of Great Britain the direct trade of the port is considerable, but principally with Demerara, Barbadoes, and Antigua.  In the trade to these ports a large amount of the tonnage registered at Belfast is regularly engaged, in addition to chartered vessels.  By far the largest proportion of the Colonial produce imported into Belfast is first landed at Liverpool, Greenock, or other ports, and conveyed across Channel by steamers.
          An import trade from the East to this port, after having been in abeyance for a very considerable period, was re-opened about the year 1844, through the agency of an enterprising merchant of the town, to whom was consigned the first cargo of tea, directly imported, that has ever landed in Ireland.  The bottom in which this cargo was brought to our shores had been chartered in China for the purpose.  The commerce of Belfast with the Eastern possessions of Britain, as also with China, is steadily increasing, and, as late as last year, vessels owned by Belfast merchants are recorded in Lloyd's Register as engaged in the regular trade between ports in the East - as Bombay, Calcutta, Hong-Kong, Shanghae, Singapore, etc. - and British ports.  Indeed a very large amount of the tonnage registered as belonging to the port of Belfast is not engaged in its own trade.  A number of the largest ships belonging to the port have never entered he harbour, but are engaged either in the cotton-carrying, the East India, or the African trades.
          The general interests of Trade and Commerce are attended to by the Chamber of Commerce, a voluntary association formed in 1783.  Its business is now transacted in suitable rooms in Waring Street.  This association has, of late years, proved of essential advantage to the mercantile interests of the town, and it numbers in its body the great proportion of the respectable merchants and traders.
          The amount of Postage collected in the town of Belfast was, in 1842, 4,588; in 1851, it was 7,246.
          The Stamp Duties received in the Belfast collection were, in 1846, 22,021; in 1850, they amounted to 26,991.
          The Inland Revenue collected in the Belfast district amounted, in 1850, to 206,278.


          Shortly after the introduction of Steam Navigation upon the Clyde some enterprising gentleman in Glasgow conceived that a cross0channel trade might, probably, prove remunerative, and speculation pointed out as the first point, the nearest commercial port of Ireland, to wit, Belfast.  The only trade between those two ports, now so important in the annals of British commerce, was at that time conducted by casual vessels, the freight ships being, in general, those which, having discharged cargoes of coals, afterwards accepted an occasional freight.  The passenger trade to Scotland or England was, generally, conducted by means of vessels trading between Donaghadee and Portpatrick, or Parkgate, in Cheshire.  About the year 1819, after Steam Navigation had been tested upon the Clyde, and when the capability of steamers for cross channel, or deep sea navigation, had been proved, the merchants of Glasgow, always foremost in matters of judicious enterprise, started a small steamer, with the object of plying between two ports whose interests were so closely connected.  The vessel chosen by them for this purpose was one which, in the present age of improvement, would be considered very small indeed, and quite insufficient for the object intended.  She was named the Clydesdale, a small boat of about 100 tons, forty horse-power, flush-decked, and with far less shelter from a shower, or from the sea spray, than at present is to be had in a canvas tent - no bridge, no suitable convenience, in short, of any kind.  The Clydesdale ran for two or three years, when she was replaced by another steamer, not larger or more elegant, named the Rob Roy.  The Clydesdale was afterwards burned, during a voyage between the Clyde and Belfast, and her helmsman, by name Cochrane, had a pension awarded him by public subscription in Scotland, in recognition of his gallantry in holding by the wheel whilst the vessel was on fire under his feet.  The Rob Roy was supplanted by the George Canning and the Britannia, worse boats than even the two former ones.  The next vessel on the line was the Eclipse; and, shortly after, competition having commenced, the Swift, a Leith and London smack, converted into a steamer, was put into this trade by a rival company.  The history of this competition is curious.  It was carried on with very considerable spirit for some months; at last one of the vessels advertised that its rate of passage to Glasgow would be only 3d.  Immediately upon this, the opposition steamer announced that it would carry passengers to Glasgow for nothing.  It was then considered that the opposition was at an end.  However, the morning previous to the departure of the next steamer on the other side, it was announced that the vessel would not only take deck passengers for nothing, but that, in order to enable them to proceed on their voyage comfortable, they would each be furnished with a pint of strong beer!  The first steamer, however, which took cargo from Belfast to Glasgow, was the Aimwell, a small vessel not more than 100 tons burthen, and 40 horse-power.  The Aimwell performed her voyages very unsatisfactorily to the Belfast merchants, inasmuch as, instead of being accomplished within the 12 hours, they were generally protracted to what would now be considered an extraordinary time, namely, 24 hours, if not, as sometimes happened, 36 hours.  The present daily communication is eight hours from Greenock.
          In 1826, the Messrs. Langtrys & Herdman (then Langtry & Co.) opened a line of steam communication from this port to Liverpool.  Their first steamer, the Chieftain, was built at Port-Glasgow.  She was a double-decked vessel of imposing appearance, with very tall masts, and rigged like an East Indiaman.  On her arrival here, in 1826, thousands flocked to the quay to inspect her.  The same firm have since then kept on the line a regular supply of first-class steamers, these being the Corsair - a favourite vessel - in 1827; Falcon, 1835; Reindeer, 1838; Sea-King, 1845; and Blenheim, 1848, which steamer at present runs regularly on the line.  About 1830, the importance of Belfast, as a commercial port became acknowledged by the Dublin Steam Packet Company, in consequence of which, they placed one of their vessels to ply once a week between Belfast and Liverpool.  Previously to this, the only direct communication between Belfast and Liverpool was that afforded by the steamer of Messrs. Langtry & Co., until the year 1835.  It is now proposed to establish a new company, for the purpose of having daily steam communication with Liverpool, under the immediate and sole control of the Belfast merchants, and steps have been already taken for carrying out the necessary arrangements.
          In the year 1829, a trade was established between Belfast and London, with the provision that the vessels were to call at Plymouth, Devonport and Dublin.  The merchants of Belfast contracted with Messrs. Fawcett & Co., of Liverpool, for a steamer of 200 horse-power and 500 tons burden, to be suited for the navigation between this port and London.  This vessel, the Erin, was launched, and plied for two years.  She did not turn out very well, proving a watery vessel.  The Erin left London in the middle of June, 1844, on her last voyage, and was seen off Ilfracombe, drifting into the bay, and next morning struck on Lundy Island, where she was totally lost, with all hands.  No other steamer replaced the Erin on this line.  The next experiment in the opening of a trade between the two ports, was in that of screw-propelled steamers; previously, however, there had been a line of sailing vessels which made regular passages, calling occasionally at Whitehaven.  Two screw steamers commenced plying in 1849.  The first of these was built in the Thames, and having turned out very well, the system of screw-propulsion having been tested to advantage, and the trade between Belfast and London offering a reasonable investment for capital, the keel of a ship of considerable tonnage was laid down at Dumbarton, on a slip belonging to Messrs. Denny, Brothers, the builders of several steamers which have acquired a high reputation.
          There are now thirty-two steamers regularly plying between this port and London, Liverpool, Fleetwood, Glasgow, Ardrossan, Morecambe, Whitehaven, Dublin, and Londonderry.


          The Borough of Belfast is governed by a Corporation, elected by the five wards - St. Anne's, Dock, Smithfield, St. George's and Cromac - each Ward returning two Aldermen and six Councillors; from the former a Mayor is annually chosen.  The Corporation have recently effected the most salutary and extensive improvements in the town, under various acts of Parliament, which have enabled them to build new and handsome streets, purchase the sites and lots of the markets, and otherwise promote the convenience and prosperity of the inhabitants.
          There are twelve principal markets, viz., May's Market, for the daily sale of grain and meal; George's Market, for butcher's meat, poultry, eggs, butter, cheese, etc., on Tuesdays and Fridays; the Flax and fruit Market, daily; the Bogwood, Turf, and Grass Market, daily; the Cattle Market, Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; the Pork Market, daily; the Butter Market, daily; the Smithfield Market, miscellaneous produce, daily; the Potato Market, daily; Castle Market, fruit, vegetable, butchers' meat, etc., daily; Ormond Market, for similar sales, daily; the retail Fish Market, daily; and the Monthly Cattle and Horse Fair, on the first Wednesday of each month.  The income arising from the tolls of these markets is increasing yearly, and is expected soon to form a considerable fund for Corporation purposes.  The present Town-hall is a mean and inconvenient structure; but it is in contemplation to erect a new Town-hall, in a commanding site, and on a scale of great magnificence, which, if constructed according to the model of the Corporation architect. already completed, will be by far the noblest public building in the town.
          The paving, lighting, and cleansing of the town are vested in a Police Committee, chosen by the Town Council under a special act; the average annual expenditure being 9,000.


          The supply of pipe water, which is obtained from three capacious reservoirs, situate about one mile North of the town, is under a Board of Water Commissioners, incorporated in 1840, and elected by the ratepayers.  The grounds belonging to the Commissioners are situated near the Antrim Road, and are most beautifully laid out for the recreation of the respectable inhabitants.  The view from the walk surrounding the principal sheet of water is unrivalled, comprehending the hills of the County Down, and an extensive view of the Lough down the channel.
          The Commercial Buildings, erected by subscription, at a cost of 20,000, in 1820, are situate in front of the Southern extremity of Donegall Street, at the angle of Bridge Street and Waring Street.  The building is of granite, and presents a fine, imposing appearance.  It is adorned in front with eight Ionic pillars, supported on a broad cornice above the windows of the lower storey, the principal portion of which is occupied by a subscription News Room, which is furnished with a valuable collection of maps, charts, etc.  In this room, the merchants meet on ;Change at two o'clock, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays.  Above the News Room, on the upper floor, is the Assembly Room, a beautiful apartment, usually devoted to public meetings, exhibitions, etc.  The roof and sides of this chamber are enriched with the most sumptuous decorations, coloured in imitation of the rarer marbles.
         The Corn merchants of Belfast have recently formed themselves into an association, for the greater facility of business, and by private subscriptions have erected a Corn Exchange, situate in Victoria Street.  This building is a chaste and elegant edifice, of cut stone, with an open balustrade in front, and a range of handsome shops in the basement storey.  The Exchange occupies a large and elaborately decorated hall on the first floor, lighted by the side windows and a range of roof lights.  It is contemplated to establish a public News Room in connexion with the Corn Exchange.
          Amongst the public buildings about to be erected in Belfast is an extensive and suitable range of offices, to contain the Customs, Inland Revenue, and Post Office departments, the premises now devoted to these purposes being altogether unsuited to the respectability, and inadequate to the wants, of the town.


          The Belfast General Hospital, the most extensive and important institution of its kind in Ulster, originated in a General Dispensary, which was founded in the year 1792, by voluntary subscriptions.  In the year 1798, a project for establishing an hospital for fever cases, in connexion with the dispensary, was undertaken and accomplished; but it was not until 1815 that the first stone of the present Hospital was laid by the then Marquis of Donegall, the charity having become fully acknowledged as one of the necessary institutions of the town.  The Hospital was completed and opened in 1817, and immediately gave accommodation to 212 intern patients.  A medical school and chemical lectures were established in connection with it.  In 1846, consequent upon the erection of the new Fever Hospital in Malone, the General Dispensary, hitherto connected with the Hospital, was placed under separate management, and the institution formally received the title of "The Belfast General Hospital," to be under the management of a president, vice-presidents, life governors, and a committee.  The building, which is the principal ornament of that portion of the town in which it stands (Frederick Street), is 160 feet in length in front.  It is surrounded by a considerable area, both in front and rere; it is flanked on the one side by the Dispensary rooms, and on the other by the Committee room and porter lodge.  At the eastern wall runs a long shed, originally used for fever cases, and kept now as a reserve ward.  The Hospital has, during recent years, received considerable aid from the public, through the proceeds of annual fetes.
          The District Lunatic Asylum, for the Counties of Antrim and Down, and the County of the Town of Carrickfergus, is situate near the Falls Road, within a mile of the town.  It is a handsome and commodious edifice with extensive grounds attached.  It was opened in 1820.  The number of patients is generally about 150.
          The Lying-in-Hospital, a square building on the Antrim Road, was opened for the accommodation of poor women in 1830, at the cost of 1,200.  It is supported by voluntary contributions, and is under the direction of a committee of benevolent ladies.  It affords relief to an annual average of 191 patients.


          The new County Gaol stands on an elevated and healthy situation on the Crumlin Road, on an area of ten acres.  It was designed after the model of the Pentonville prison, near London.  The central portion consists of board, reception, and waiting rooms, the governor's department, and the chapel and inspection. From the centre hall four wings diverge, two for males, with three storeys or ranges, and a like number for females.  The Church is divided into compartments, which admit of 348 prisoners.  The management of the gaol is under a board of superintendence; and the officers connected therewith, are those of an inspector, three chaplains, a surgeon, an apothecary, and a resident governor.
          Opposite to the new Gaol, and connected with it by means of a subterranean passage, is the new County Court-house, built in consequence of the late transfer of the Assize business from Carrickfergus to Belfast, and the proclamation of Belfast as the county town.  It is a truly splendid structure, and acknowledged to be the finest County Court-house in Ireland.  It is in the Corinthian order of architecture, with an imposing portico of eight columns of 30 feet in height, in the centre of the front facade, and wings enriched with pilasters.  A bold cornice is carried round three sides of the building, and on the apex of the pediment stands a fine figure of Justice.  The public hall, in the interior, and the Crown and Record Courts, are models of chaste design.  The whole building, as well as the Gaol, reflecting the greatest credit on the able architect, C. Lanyon, Esq., C.E,.  The Court-house was opened in the Summer of 1850.
          Besides the Assize Courts, there are held in Belfast a Court of Quarter Sessions, a Manor Court, and daily Petty Sessions.
          The town is the head quarters of the Northern military district of Ireland; and these are extensive Barracks for Cavalry and Infantry, situate in North Queen Street.  The garrison usually consists of a troop of horse and a regiment of infantry.  Belfast is also the residence of the County resident Magistrate, and is the head quarters of the Constabulary for the district, comprising the stations of Belfast, Lisburn, and Whitewell Brae.


          There are three Railways, the head offices and principal termini of which are situated in Belfast, viz.; the Ulster Railway (from Belfast to Armagh); the Belfast and Ballymena Railway, with branches to Carrickfergus and Randalstown; and the Belfast and County Down Railway, with a branch to Holywood.  The Belfast terminus of the Ulster Railway, in Great Victoria Street, is an imposing structure, with a central portico of four massive columns and two wings, and an exceedingly spacious and handsome Station-house in the rear.  The terminus of the Belfast and County Down Railway, on the Queen's Quay, is an elegant cut stone edifice.  That of the Belfast and Ballymena line is, as yet, only partially completed, but when finished will be most commodious.
          The principal manufacturers carried on in Belfast and its vicinity - at least those, to which it is chiefly indebted for its present state of prosperity - are, the linen yarn, linen, cotton, and sewed muslin manufactures.


          The climate and soil of Ulster are admirably adapted for the cultivation of flax; but it is only, within recent years, that its culture has received any large share of attention.  In 1841, the establishment of the Royal Flax Society greatly assisted in the developement of this grand national resource, and the growth of flax has become concentrated in Ulster since the employment of machinery in spinning yarn.  The flax planted in Ulster alone, in 1851, reached the very great breadth of 138,619 acres.  So large a quantity, grown as it were at the very doors of the manufacturers, with an extensive local demand for their yarns, has given them considerable advantages over their rivals in other parts of the United Kingdom, who are obliged principally to depend upon the supply of the raw material from abroad.  Improved modes of steeping the flax, and of scutching the fibre, of recent introduction, have also given a great stimulus to the trade; and its extent may be judged of from the fact, that the number of spindles in operation in Ireland for the spinning of flax, on the 1st of January, 1851, was 500,000, of which by far the greater proportion is employed in Belfast, and the districts adjacent; and that the number of persons engaged in connexion with the trade is estimated at 200,000; and the amount invested in buildings, machinery, and the requisite floating capital, at 3,000,000.
          The exports of Irish linen manufacturers have steadily increased almost from the earliest establishment of the trade, notwithstanding the apparent decline previous to the introduction of machinery.  This increase became most apparent after the abolition of the bounties, which, under the Linen Board, were paid on the export of some description of linen fabrics.  These bounties ceased in 1830.  The apparent amount of exports of linen from Ireland is now small, arising from the fact that nearly all is sent by the cross Channel steamers to the English and Scotch ports, whence it is trans-shipped to foreign countries.  The entire export from Ireland to Great Britain, and all foreign countries, reaches about 106,000,000 yards; value, 4,400,000.
          The restrictive policy adopted by most of the European states, and which these seems little disposition to relax, is a bar to the more rapid progress of the linen trade, which now mainly depends upon the export to North and South America, and the West Indies, in addition to the home consumption, which has not kept pace with the increase of the export trade.
          The establishment of Schools of Design is likely to benefit the damask and printed linen manufacture, and afford employment to an important class of individuals in a manufacturing community.  The value attached to the ornaments used in preparing packets of linen for the foreign markets, and the taste with which it is thought necessary to get them up, render them no unimportant article of trade; and by the help of the School of Design, there is every prospect that the "linen bands" will become a home manufacture, and secure to the town of Belfast an annual expenditure of 60,000, now paid to strangers and foreigners.
          Belfast is the great centre of the Irish flax spinning and linen trades.  Of the sixty-six factories in connection with these manufacturies in Ulster, no fewer than thirty-five were located in Belfast and its suburbs, in 1851, and their number is constantly increasing.  One of the Belfast factories employs 25,000 spindles, and several from 10,000 to 20,000.  It is considered that the advantages which Belfast offers for the location of a flax factory, as being the centre of the trade, where the chief purchases of yarns are made by the manufacturers, and the greater convenience of obtaining skilled workers, are sufficient to counterbalance the greater cheapness of water power in other localities.  Hence the chief increase of spinning machinery is found to be in and around Belfast.
          It is estimated that the coal consumed in driving the steam engines of the flax mills in Belfast (upwards of thirty in number), and bleach greens, is above 160,000 tons annually, employing fifty vessels, and 300 seamen.  400,000 spindles are now at work, giving employment to about 20,000 operatives, and about 40,000 are annually paid in wages.  The ratio of increase in the persons employed in factory labour here is fifty-two per cent, whilst in England it is 30; and in Scotland only 13 per cent.
          In 1725, machinery was first applied to the operations of washing, rubbing and beetling linen, in the parish of Belfast.  The only acid in the process of bleaching, up to 1761, was buttermilk.  In 1764, Dr. Ferguson, of Belfast, received from the Linen Board a premium of 300, for the successful application of lime in the bleaching process.  In 1770, he introduced the use of sulphuric acid; in 1780, potash was first used; and in 1795, chloride of lime was introduced.  Recent improvements have enabled some bleachers to perfect the process in ten days, and very lately it was stated in the Belfast News-Letter, that in one establishment linen is perfectly bleached and finished, without injury to the fabric, in the short space of three days.  The proprietors of the bleach greens either bleach linen for hire, are themselves manufacturers, bleaching and exporting their own fabrics, or are purchasers of brown linen, and export it when bleached.
          The articles manufactured by the trade are very numerous.  Among these may be named, ordinary shirtings, light and heavy, of all degrees of texture; sheetings. drills, plain and striped; checks; bed-ticks; damasks and diapers; grey damasks for stair and carpet coverings; mosquito netting; lawns; cambric and cambric handkerchiefs; printed lawns and cambrics; sacking; canvass; ropes and cordage; yarn for carpeting; sewing threads. etc.
          The neighbourhoods of Belfast and Lisburn chiefly excel in the production of damask, as that of Lurgan excels in the manufacture of lawns and cambrics; Armagh of light linens; Ballymena of heavy linens, and so on.  The damask manufacture was introduced into Ireland about 1764.  Mr. Coulson, of Lisburn, received several sums of money from the Linen Board, to assist him in improving the manufacture.  In 1828, the Ardoyne damask manufactory was established by Mr. Andrews.  At the present time, the fabric has reached a high point of excellence, and the finest quality is not excelled, if it is even equalled, by the choicest products of Saxony.  These productions consist of double and single damasks and diapers.  The first named are considered articles of luxury, not so much from the intrinsic cost of manufacture, as from the great expense of getting up special designs for customers, to whom cost is no object.  The second division comprises the great bulk of coarse goods for home sale and export.
          There has of late been considerable improvement in the printing of linens and lawns for ladies' dresses, and of the borders of cambric handkerchiefs - a branch of the trade which is likely to become of extreme importance and value, when our native designs equal or excel those of foreign pattern drawers, as it is expected will be the case, when the pupils of the School of Design have had sufficient instruction and experience.
          Mr. J. McAdam, jun., to whose excellent papers in the fourth volume of the Journal of Design we are chiefly indebted for the information above given, says, "There are many reasons for believing that the future progress of the Irish linen trade will at least keep pace with its past development.  One cause of linen fabrics being dearer than cotton is, that the great mass of the latter are woven by power, while all the former, except some of the coarsest kinds, are woven by hand.  Although many attempts have been made to adapt the power loom to linens, they have hitherto not been successful, chiefly owing to the fact, that flax-fibre is not so elastic a substance as cotton-wool.  Nevertheless, late experiments have given more satisfactory results, although not yet sufficiently matured to warrant the belief that the power-loom can be soon made generally available.  A Belfast damask manufacturer has been able to produce some light damasks, of fair quality, by power, and is at present erecting a steam engine and factory to carry on the manufacture on a more extended scale.  It is scarcely possible that the difficulties which have heretofore prevented power-loom weaving from being adopted in the linen manufacture, should prove insuperable.  Mechanical science has achieved many triumphs, where much greater obstacles lay in the way.  We may, therefore, conclude that, sooner or later, the system will be fully carried out, and its results will have a powerful effect on the advancement of the manufacture."
          The greater number of the factories connected with this trade in Belfast are gigantic structures, erected at great expense, and some of them are of elegant architectural design.  The forest of chimney stalks along the Falls Road, where the greater number of them are situated, is a very peculiar feature in the view of the town, from whatever direction it be taken.  There are, however, few parts of the suburban districts where these immense foci of industry do not attract the attention of the passer by.  The largest flax-mill in Belfast, which is also one of the largest in the United Kingdom, is that of the York Street Spinning Company.  It employs 25,000 spindles, and 1,000 hands; and the value of the flax under process amounts to upwards of 100,000.
          The Linen Hall, which was erected in 1785, at a cost of 10,000, for the accommodation of the Belfast linen merchants, is a spacious building, forming a quadrangle, two storeys in height, and occupying the area of Donegall Square.  Its front, which faces Donegall Place, is ornamented with a pediment, clock - turret, and cupola.  The extreme neatness of the edifice, both within and without, and the good taste displayed in the ordering of the ornamental grounds attached to it, enhance the interest which its attractions, as the seat of an immense traffic, distributing the blessings of industry to upwards of half-a-million of individuals, cannot fail to create.
          In the Brown Linen Hall, situate in Donegall Street, considerable quantities of yard-wide brown linens are sold on each Tuesday and Friday.


          Next in importance to the linen trade, among the local manufactures of Belfast, are the plain and sewed muslin trades.  The greatest part of the cotton yarn used in the manufacture is imported, chiefly from the neighbourhood of Manchester, and afterwards goes through its subsequent processes in the establishments here, passing through from fourteen to twenty hands in its different stages, viz., winding, warping, weaving, etc.  The fabric is then printed with a lithographed impression of the pattern to be worked and given out to the embroiderers, among whom it passes through four or five stages.
          This important trade, in all its branches, employs very nearly, 500,000 individuals, the embroiderers being exclusively females, great numbers of them living at remote distances from the seat of the manufacture.  In the sewed muslin branch alone, wages to the amount of from 900,000 to one million sterling are annually paid by upwards of forty firms now established in Belfast; and in the plain muslin trade throughout the country, the annual expenditure in wages, altogether for manual labour, is from 300,000 to 400,000.  The wages of learners average from 6d. to 1s. per week.  Regular workers of the middling qualities of sewing earn from 2s. to 5s. per week; and the better classes of workers from 6s. to 9s. weekly.  The best descriptions of sewed muslins are produced by the Belfast establishments, or the Scotch houses, which have branch establishments here.  The importance to Ireland of this manufacture, in a social point of view, cannot be over-rated, since it gives employment to so many thousands of persons and carries comfort and independence into many a cottage which would otherwise be the scene of misery and degradation.
          The cotton mills in and about Belfast are five in number, viz.: - Messrs. Leppers', containing about 30,000 spindles; Mr. McCracken's, 20,500 ditto; Mr. Gamble's (Ballynure), 17,000 ditto; Mr. Cochrane's (Bangor), 13,000 ditto; and Mr. Wallace's (Bangor), 9,000 ditto.  These mills produce only the coarser kinds of yarn.
          We have thus presented our readers with a more general sketch of Belfast as it now is.  In our next volume, it is our intention to enter into much more enlarged and minute particulars of the town and trade of Belfast.